History of Mahatma Gandhi | Biography of Mahatma Gandhi

History of Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (born: 2 October 1869 - died: 30 January 1948), also known as Mahatma Gandhi, was a prominent political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. He was the leading leader of protest against tyranny through satyagraha (comprehensive civil disobedience), the foundation of his concept was laid on the principle of complete non - violence, which led India to the Indian freedom struggle and movement for civil rights and freedom of the people all over the world. inspired for He is known to the general public in the world Mahatma Gandhi. Knows by name. Mahatma or great soul is an honorific word in Sanskrit language. Gandhi was first addressed as Mahatma in 1915 by Rajvaidya Jivaram Kalidas. According to another view, Swami Shraddhanand gave the title of Mahatma in 1915, the third opinion is that Guru Rabindranath Tagore had given the title of Mahatma. In one of his articles on 12 April 1919. He is also remembered as Bapu (Bapu means father in Gujarati language). According to one opinion, the first person to address Gandhiji as Bapu was his disciple of Sabarmati Ashram.Subhash Chandra Bose said 6 Julai L944 to Rangoon to broadcast the names of Gandhi Radio Nation Speaking saying Azad Hind Legion blessings of the soldiers and the best were Maagin. Every year on October 2, his birthday is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti in India and as International Day of Nonviolence all over the world.

First of all, Gandhiji started Satyagraha as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa for the struggle for the civil rights of the people of the Indian community. He returned to India in 1915. After that he united the farmers, laborers and urban workers here to raise their voice against excessive land tax and discrimination. After taking over the reins of the Indian National Congress in 1921, he ran many programs in the country against untouchability for freedom from poverty, expansion of women's rights, building religious and caste unity and self-reliance. In all this, the Swaraj who got rid of foreign ruleThe program to achieve was the key. Gandhiji gained special fame from the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and the Quit India Movement in 1942, in protest against the salt tax imposed by the British government on Indians. He was also imprisoned for many years on various occasions in South Africa and India.

Gandhiji followed non-violence and truth in all circumstances and also advocated for everyone to follow them. He spent his life in the Sabarmati Ashram and wore the traditional Indian dress of dhoti and a shawl made of cotton, which he himself made by hand spinning the yarn on a spinning wheel. He ate simple vegetarian food and kept long fasts for self-purification.

Early life

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in western India is currently in Gujarat, a coastal city of Porbandar place called Oct. 2 was 186 9 was born. His father Karamchand Gandhi belonged to the Pansari caste of Sanatan Dharma and was the Diwan i.e. Prime Minister of a small princely state (Porbandar) of Kathiawar during the British Raj. Gandhi in Gujarati means grocer while in Hindi language Gandhi means perfume seller who is called perfumer in English. His mother Putlibai Paranami belonged to the Vaish community. Putlibai was the fourth wife of Karamchand. His first three wives died in childbirth. Due to the care of a devout mother and the Jain traditions of that area, those influences had fallen on young Mohandas in the beginning, which later played an important role in the life of Mahatma Gandhi. These influences included a feeling of enthusiasm among the weak, a vegetarian life, fasting for self-purification, and tolerance among people of different castes.

Early Marriage

On attaining the age of 13 and a half in May 1883, he was married to Kastur Bai Makanji of 14 years. The wife's maiden name was shortened to Kasturba and she was affectionately called Baa. This marriage was the arranged child marriage arranged by their parents which was prevalent in that area at that time. But it was the custom in that area that the teenage bride had to stay at her parents' house and away from her husband for a long time. In 1885, when Gandhi was 15 years old, his first child was born. But she lived only a few days. And in the same year his father Karamchand Gandhi also passed away. Mohandas and Kasturba had four children, all of whom were sons. Harilal Gandhi in 1888, Manilal Gandhi in 1892, Ramdas Gandhi in 1897 and Devdas GandhiBorn in 1900. He did middle school from Porbandar and high school from Rajkot. Academic level in both the examinations he remained an ordinary student. After matriculation he passed with some problem from Shamaldas College in Bhavnagar. As long as he remained there he was unhappy because his family wanted him to be a barrister.

Education abroad and advocacy abroad

On 4 September 1888, about a month before his 19th birthday, Gandhi went to England to study law and become a barrister at University College London. While leaving India, a promise made to the Jain monk Becharaji to his mother to give up meat, alcohol and parochial ideology to the Hindus greatly influenced the time he spent in the royal capital London. However, Gandhiji also experienced English customs, such as going to dance classes, etc., for example. Still he could not digest the meat and cabbage given by his landlady. He pointed to some vegetarian eateries. Rather than directly adopting what he had read about his mother's wishes, he became an intellectually vegetarian.The food accepted its own meal. He joined the Vegetarian Society and was elected to its executive committee, where he founded a local chapter. He later set up significant experience in agencies credited it with giving. Some of the vegetarians he met were also members of the Theosophical Society. This society was established in 1875 to strengthen universal brotherhood and was dedicated to the study of the literature of Buddhism and Sanatana Dharma.

Those people inspired Gandhiji to read Shrimad Bhagavad Gita. Before reading about Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam and other religions, Gandhi did not show much interest in religion. On being called back to the England and Wales Bar Association, he returned to India but did not get much success in practicing law in Bombay. Later, when his application for a part-time job as a high school teacher was rejected, he made Rajkot his permanent place to write lawsuits for the needy. But due to the foolishness of an English officer, he had to leave this business too. OwnIn his autobiography, he describes the incident as a failed attempt at philanthropy on the part of his elder brother. This was the reason why in 1893 he accepted a contract of law with an Indian firm in Natal South Africa, which was then part of the British Empire, on a one-year contract.

Civil rights movements in South Africa (1893–1914)

In South Africa, Gandhi faced discrimination against Indians. Initially, he was thrown out of the train for refusing to go to the third class compartment after having a valid ticket for the first class coach. Not only this, while traveling the rest of the run, a European passenger had to face the blow of the driver when he came in. He also faced many other difficulties in his journey. Many hotels in Africa were barred for them. Similarly, this was one of the many incidents in which the judges of the courthad ordered him to remove his turban which he did not obey. All these events became a turning point in Gandhi's life and became a cause of awareness about the existing social injustice and proved helpful in explaining social activism. Seeing the injustice being done to Indians in South Africa, Gandhi raised questions about the respect of his countrymen and his own position in the country under the British Empire.

Role in the Zulu War of 1906

In 1906, Zulu (Zulu) South Africa two after applying the new elections Englishman was killed officers. In return the British waged war against Zulu. Gandhi actively motivated the British officers to recruit Indians. His argument was that Indians should support the war effort in order to legalize their citizenship claims. However, the British refused to give posts to Indians in their army. Despite this, he accepted Gandhi's proposal that Indians could voluntarily work to bring wounded British soldiers on stretchers for treatment. Gandhi took the reins of this corps. On July 21, 1906, GandhijiIndian Opinion Indian Opinion (Indian Opinion) wrote that 23 Indian has formed a core at the behest of Natal government used in connection with the operations against the residents. Urged the Indian people in South Africa to join this war through his columns in Indian Opinion and said, if the government only feels that the reserve forces are getting useless then they will use it and go to the real fight. Will give this opportunity by giving training to Indians.

In Gandhi's opinion, the draft ordinance of 1906 was like bringing the status of Indians to the level below that of a resident. So he Satyagraha (Satyagraha), along the lines of "Kaffir (Kaffir be) s" Kka example urged to resist the ordinance of Indians do. In his words, "Even half the castes and Kafirs who are less modern than us have opposed the government. The rule of the pass applies to them too but they do not show the pass."

Struggle for Indian Freedom Struggle (1916 -1945)

Gandhi returned from South Africa to live in India in 1915. He expressed his views on the sessions of the Indian National Congress, but his views were based only on the main issues of India, politics and the prominent Indian leader of the Congress party at that time, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who was a respected leader.

Champaran and Kheda

Gandhi's first major achievements were in the Champaran Satyagraha and Kheda Satyagraha in 1918, although the movement of indigo, cash-paying food crops rather than the food crops necessary for his sustenance, was also important. Indians who were oppressed by the power of the zamindars (mostly British) were given a meager compensation allowance, leaving them in extreme poverty. Villages badly dirty and unhealthy (Unhygienic); and bound by alcohol, untouchability and veils. Now to compensate for the royal treasury due to a devastating famine, the British imposed oppressive taxes whose burden kept increasing day by day. This situation was disappointing. Kheda (Kheda), GujaratI had the same problem. Gandhi was an unspoken the hermitage (Ashram built) where he has a lot of supporters and organize new volunteers. He carried out a detailed study and survey of the villages, which recorded the horrific incidents of animal atrocities and also included the unproductive general condition of the people. Instilling confidence in the villagers, he started his work by cleaning the villages under which schools and hospitals were built and inspired the rural leadership to end many of the social evils mentioned above.

But its major effects were seen when he was arrested by the police for causing unrest and he was ordered to leave the province. Thousands of people protested and took out rallies outside jails, police stations and courts demanding Gandhi's unconditional release. Gandhi led the protests and strikes against the zamindars who under the guidance of the British government signed an agreement to grant more compensation to the poor farmers of that area and control farming, canceling the increase in revenue and collecting it. Did it During this struggle itself, Gandhiji was addressed by the public as Bapu Father and Mahatma (Great Soul). Sardar Patel in Khedaled the peasants for discussions with the British in which all the prisoners were released by the British from the collection of revenue. As a result of this, Gandhi's fame spread across the country.

Non-cooperation movement

Gandhiji used non-cooperation, non-violence and peaceful retaliation as weapons against the British. The Jallianwala massacre on Indians by English troops in Punjab, also known as the Amritsar massacre, inflicted a severe blow to the country, sparking anger and violence among the people. Gandhiji did both the British Raj and the regressive attitude by the Indians. He expressed condolences to the British citizens and the victims of the riots and condemned the riots after the party's initial opposition. After Gandhi's emotional speech advocated his principle that all violence and evil cannot be justified. But it was with this massacre and the violence that followed, Gandhi focused his mind on bringing complete control over the entire government and the institutions held by the Indian government, which was soon going to turn into Swaraj or complete personal, spiritual and political freedom.

In December 1921, Gandhi was appointed the executive officer of the Indian National Congress. Under his leadership the Congress was organized with a new objective named as Swaraj. Membership in the party was open to all on payment of a nominal fee. A hierarchical committee was constituted to improve the discipline within the party to make it a party of the national people and not of an elite organization. Gandhi expanded his non-violent platform to include the Swadeshi policy – boycotting foreign goods, especially English goods. His advocacy, which was associated with this, said that all Indians should wear khadi made by our own people instead of clothes made by the British. Gandhiji's freedom movement Men and women wereasked to spend timedailyspinning yarn for Khadi in order to support. It was a policy of bringing in discipline and dedication so as to remove reluctance and ambition and replace them with women at a time when there were many views that such activities were not respectful for women. Apart from this, Gandhijialso requested toboycott British educational institutions and courts and leave government jobs andreturn the honors and honors received from the government.

Non-cooperation received appeal and success from far and wide, which increased the enthusiasm and participation of all sections of the society. Then, as soon as this movement reached its peak, it ended in February 1922 in the form of terrible hatred in Chauri-Chora, Uttar Pradesh. Considering the fear of the movement taking a violent stand and considering that it would sabotage all its work, Gandhi withdrew this movement of widespread non-cooperation. Gandhi was arrested On March 10, 1922, Gandhi was tried for treason in which he was sentenced to six years imprisonment and jailed. He spent only two years in prison from March 18, 1922, until he was released in February 1924.He was released for an intestinal operation.

Without Gandhi's unifying personality, the Indian National Congress started splitting into two parties during his two years in prison, one led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru, who favored the party's participation in the House, and the other party. The opposite was led by Chakravarti Rajagopalacharya and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Furthermore, cooperation between Hindus and Muslims was breaking down, reaching the height of the non-violence movement. Gandhi tried to fill this gap by several means, including fasting for three weeks in the spring of 1924 with limited success.

Swaraj and Salt Satyagraha (Salt March)

Gandhi stayed away from active politics and for most of the 1920s he was engaged in bridging the gap between the Swaraj Party and the Indian National Congress, and in addition, he continued to campaign against untouchability, alcoholism, ignorance and poverty. He first returned in 1928. A year earlier, the British government formed a new Constitutional Reforms Commission under Sir John Simon in which not a single member was an Indian. This resulted in boycotts by Indian political parties. In December 1928, Gandhiji made a resolution in a Congress session held in Calcutta, asking to provide power to the Indian Empire or face the non-cooperation movement for the independence of the entire country as his objective in return for not doing so. Be ready to. Gandhiji not only influenced the youth of Subhas Chandra Bose and Jawaharlal NehruFor example, the ideas of men demanding immediate independence rather withheld their own demand for one year instead of two years. The British did not respond..No 31 December 1929, the flag of India was unfurled in Lahore. 26 January 1930 was celebrated as Indian Independence Day by the Indian National Congress in Lahore. This day was also celebrated by almost every Indian organizations. After this, Gandhi started a new Satyagraha in March 1930 against the imposition of tax on salt, which was started from 12 March to 6 April.To commemorate the salt movement, a 400-kilometre (248 mi) journey was carried out from Ahmedabad to Dandi, Gujarat to produce salt itself. Thousands of Indians participated in this journey towards the sea. It was one of the most successful movements to break the hold of the British in India, in which the British sent more than 80,000 people to jail.

The government represented by Lord Edward Irwin decided to hold discussions with Gandhiji. This is the treaty of Irwin GandhiSigned in March 1931. In order to stop the Civil Disobedience Movement, the British Government gave its consent to the release of all political prisoners. As a result of this agreement, Gandhi was invited to attend the Round Table Conference to be held in London as the sole representative of the Indian National Congress. This conference was deeply disappointing for Gandhiji and the nationalists, because instead of transferring power, the focus was on Indian prices and Indian minorities. In addition, Lord Willington, the successor of Lord Irwin, started a new campaign to control and crush the nationalist movement. Gandhi was again arrested and the government tried to prevent him from being influenced by Gandhi by keeping his followers completely away from him. But, this tactic was not successful.

Dalit Movement and Nischay Diwas

In 1932, through the election campaign of Dalit leader and eminent scholar Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, the government allowed separate electorates for the untouchables under a new constitution. In protest against this, Gandhiji, an opponent of Dalits, took a six-day fast in September 1932, which successfully forced the government to adopt a similar system of mediation by Dalit-turned-politician Palwankar Balu. Untouchables by Gandhi to improve the lives of the campaign was conducted. Gandhiji named these untouchables as Harijans whom he considered as the children of God. On 8 May 1933, Gandhi observed a 21-day fast of self-purification to help the Harijan movement. This new campaign did not go down well with the Dalits, though he remained a prominent leader.Dr. Ambedkar categorically condemned Gandhiji 's use of the term Harijans, that Dalits are socially immature and that the privileged caste Indians have played a patriarchal role. Ambedkar and his allies also realized that Gandhiji was undermining the political rights of Dalits. Although Gandhiji was born in a Vaishya caste, yet he insisted that he could raise his voice for the Dalits even though he was a Dalit Messiah like Dr. Ambedkar. Indian freedom struggleAmong the social evils of India, untouchability was a major evil against which Mahatma Gandhi and his followers struggled. At that time the entry of Harijans in the main temples of the country was completely banned. Thrissur district of Kerala state is a major religious city in South India. A revered temple here is the Guruvayur Temple, in which the idol of Lord Guruvayurappan, depicting the child form of Lord Krishna, is installed. Like other temples before independence, there was a complete ban on the entry of Harijans in this temple.

Sri Kelappan, a Gandhi supporter from Kerala, raised his voice against this practice on the orders of the Mahatma, and finally, in 1933, civil disobedience was started for this. The trustees of the temple were instructed that the first day of the new year i.e. January 1, 1934, would be celebrated as the final determination day and in case there was no decision from their level on this date, Mahatma Gandhi and Shri Kelappan would be followed by the agitators. A fast unto death can be done in favor of For this reason a meeting was called on behalf of the trustees of Guruvayoor temple and the opinion of the worshipers of the temple was also obtained. In the meeting, on the basis of the majority given by 77 percent of the worshippers, the entry of Harijans in the temple was approved and thus the admission of Harijans in the Sri Guruvayur temple of Kerala from January 1, 1934 as a success of the decision day was accepted in principle. Approval received. Guruvayoor temple in which even today non-Hindus Entry is barred, however the Lord who believes in many religions is an ardent devotee of Lord Guruvayoorappan. With the inspiration of Mahatma Gandhi, the first day of January was celebrated as Nishchay Diwas and the determination made was achieved. In the summer of 1934, three unsuccessful attempts were made on him to take his life.

When the Congress Party chose to contest the elections and accepted power under the federal scheme, Gandhiji decided to resign from the membership of the party. He did not disagree with the party's move but felt that if he resigned, his popularity with Indians would facilitate the consolidation of the party's membership which had hitherto been composed of communists, socialists, trade unionists, students, religious leaders. It existed between trade unions and various voices. This will give an opportunity to all of them to have their views heard. Gandhiji, while leading a party for the Raj, did not want to achieve a goal by campaigning that would be accepted as a temporary political arrangement with the Raj.

Gandhi returned to India in 1936 along with the Nehru Presidency and the Lahore session of the Congress. However, it was Gandhi's absolute wish to focus his entire attention on achieving independence and not on speculations about India's future. That did not stop the Congress from adopting socialism as its objective. Gandhi had differences with Subhas Bose, who was elected to the post of party president in 1938. Gandhi's main points of differences with Bose were Bose's lack of commitment to democracy and his lack of belief in non-violence. Bose won the second time despite Gandhi's criticism, but left the Congress when all Indian leaders abandoned all the principles implemented by Gandhi.

World War II and Quit India Movement

World War II broke out in 1939, when Nazi Germany invaded Poland. Initially, Gandhi favored non-violent moral support to British efforts, but other Congress leaders opposed unilateral involvement in the war without consulting the public's representatives. did. All the elected members of the Congress collectively resigned from their posts. After a long discussion, Gandhi declared that India would not be a party to any war if it fought outside for democratic freedom when India itself was denied independence. As the war progressed, Gandhi gave his demand for independence to the British Quit India Movement.Intensified by giving a bill called. This was the most obvious rebellion of Gandhi and the Congress party aimed at driving out the British from India.

Jawaharlal Nehru, sitting second to Gandhi, was criticized by some members of the party and some other political Indian parties who believed both in favor and against the British. Some believed that it was a mortal act to oppose the British in one's lifetime or in the struggle to the death, while some believed that Gandhi was not trying enough. Quit India became the most powerful movement of the struggle, with widespread violence and arrests. Thousands of freedom fighters were either killed or injured by police bullets and thousands were arrested. Gandhi and his supporters made it clear that they would not support the war effort until India was given immediate independence. He made it clear that this time also this movement will not stop if individual acts of violence are embodied. He said that the order of chaos around him is worse than the real anarchy. He asked all Congressmen and Indians to maintain discipline for the ultimate freedom through do or die with non - violence.

Gandhiji and all the members of the Congress Working Committee were arrested by the British in Mumbai on 9 August 1942. Gandhiji was imprisoned for two years at the Aanga Khan Palace in Pune. This was the time when Gandhiji suffered two deep blows in his personal life. His 50-year-old secretary Mahadev Desai died of a heart attack six days later, and his wife Kasturba Gandhi died on 22 February 1944, after Gandhi had been in jail for 18 months. Six weeks later, Gandhiji also suffered from malaria. 6 May 1944 due to his ill health and necessary treatment He was released before the end of the war. Raj did not want to see him dying in jail, which would increase the anger of the country. Although the Quit India Movement achieved only partial success in its objective, the brutal repression of the movement organized India by the end of 1943. At the end of the war, the British had given a clear indication that the transfer of power would be handed over to the Indians. At this time Gandhi called off the movement, releasing about 100,000 political prisoners, including Congress leaders.

Independence and Partition of India

Gandhi advised the Congress in 1946 to reject the proposal of the British Cabinet Mission because it was deeply skeptical of the proposed grouping for Muslim-majority provinces, so Gandhi called the episode a rehearsal for a partition. seen as However, this also became one of the incidents of differences by the Congress with Gandhi for some time (though not because of his leadership) as Nehru and Patel knew that if the Congress did not approve the plan, the government would be controlled by the Muslim League.will go near. Between 1948, more than 5000 people were put to death during the violence. Gandhiji was against any plan that would divide India into two separate countries. Many Hindus living in India and the overwhelming majority of Sikhs and Muslims were in favor of the partition of the country. In addition, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League, ruled West Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province and East Bengal Introduced extensive cooperation in The Congress leaders had given their approval to this plan of partition only to stop the widespread Hindu-Muslim fight. The Congress leaders knew that Gandhiji would oppose Partition and without his consent it was possible for the Congress to move ahead given that Gandhiji's support in the party and his position throughout India was strong. Gandhiji's close aides accepted partition as the best solution and Sardar Patel tried to convince Gandhiji that this was the only way to stop the civil unrest war. The forced Gandhi gave his permission.

He held extensive discussions with Muslim and Hindu community leaders in North India as well as in Bengal to quell the heated attitude. Despite the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947, he was harassed when the government decided not to give Pakistan Rs 55 crore as per the agreement made by the Partition Council. Leaders like Sardar Patel feared that Pakistan might use this money to wage war against India. When the demand arose that all Muslims should be sent to Pakistan and Muslim and Hindu leaders expressed dissatisfaction with this and refused to compromise with each other Gandhi was deeply shocked. He DelhiStarted his first fast-unto-death fast in 1530 in which he was asked to end the communal violence immediately for all and to pay Rs 55 crores to Pakistan. Gandhi feared that instability and insecurity in Pakistan would increase his anger towards India and lead to violence along the border. He further feared that Hindus and Muslims would renew their enmity and that could lead to civil war. After passionate arguments with allies who had supported Gandhiji throughout his life, Gandhi refused to listen and the government had to stick to its policy and pay Pakistan. The leaders of the Hindu Muslim and Sikh community assured him that he would forget the violence and bring peace. These communities include the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and the Hindu Mahasabha.were involved. Thus Gandhi broke his fast by drinking orange juice.

The Killing

On January 30, 1948, Gandhi was shot dead by Nathuram Godse while he was walking through the night at Birla Bhawan (Birla House grounds) in New Delhi. Gandhi's assassin Nathuram Goudse was a Hindu nationalist whose fanatics were members of the Hindu Mahasabha. There were ties with Gandhi that held Gandhi responsible for weakening India on the issue of payments to Pakistan. Godse and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were later executed and convicted on 15 November 1949. In Devanagari, at Gandhi's memorial at Raj Ghat, New Delhi. Hey Ram "is written. It was widely believed that when these last words out of then went shot Gandhiji their faces. But standing up controversy on this statement. Jawaharlal Nehru radio Addressed the nation through :

Gandhi's ashes were placed in an abyss and carried across India to commemorate his services. Most of these were immersed in water at the Sangam at Allahabad on 12 February 1948, but some were kept separately as sacred. In 1997, Tushar Gandhi immersed some of the contents of an urn measured in a bank, through a court, into water at a place called Sangam in Allahabad. On 30 January 2008, after another urn containing Gandhi's ashes was sent to the Mumbai Museum by a Dubai-based businessman, he was immersed in water at a place called Girgaum Chowpatty. Another ashes urn Aga Khanwhich is in Pune, (where he was imprisoned from 1942 to 1944) and finished there the Second Self-realization Fellowship at the Lake Temple in Los Angeles ​​is kept. This family is aware that this holy ashes can be misused for political purposes but do not want to remove them from here as it will destroy the temples. There may be a risk of breaking.

Gandhi's Principles

Gandhi devoted his life to the wider search for truth, or truth. He tried to learn by making his own mistakes and experimenting on himself to achieve this goal. He named his autobiography The Experiment of Truth.

Gandhiji said that the most important battle to fight is to overcome the elements like our demons, fear and insecurities. Gandhi summarized his beliefs first when he said God is truth | Later he changed his statement to Truth is God. Thus, Gandhi's philosophy in truth is "Parmeshwar".

Non-violence

Although Gandhi was not at all a proponent of the principle of non-violence, he was the first to use it on a large scale in the political field. Ahimsa (Non-Violence), non-violence (Ahimsa) and irretrievable (Non-Resistance) is a long history in Indian religious thought and Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Jewish and Christian communities have a lot of concepts. Gandhi in his autobiography The Story of My Experiments with Truth "(The Story Of My Experiments With Truth) was quoted in the philosophy and way of life. They say:

When I despair, I remember that although history is the way to truth, love always conquers it. There have been tyrants and murderers too and for some time they seemed invincible but in the end they only fall - always think about it.

"What does it matter to the dead, the orphans and the homeless, that under the holy name of liberty and democracy lies the mad destruction of totalitarianism.

For one eye the other eye will make the whole world blind.

I have many reasons to die, but I have no reason to kill anyone."

In applying these principles, Gandhi did not shy away from taking them to the most logical limits to show the world where the government, the police and the army had also become non-violent." Excerpts have been taken from the book.

The war of science leads a person to dictatorship, pure and simple. The science of non-violence alone can lead a person to the path of pure democracy. A power based on love is a thousand times greater and lasting than the power generated by fear of punishment. It would be blasphemy to say that non-violence can only be practiced individually and countries with individualism can never practice it. The closest approach to pure anarchy would be a democracy based on non-violence; A society organized and run on the basis of complete non - violence is pure anarchy.

There will be a society.

I also accepted that the need for a police force may be inevitable even in a non-violent state. Police ranks will be formed from those who believe in non-violence. People will help them in every possible way and through mutual co-operation they will be able to deal with any disturbance easily... Violent fights between labor and capital and strikes will be few and far less in non-violent states because of the majority of non-violent societies. The influence of will be great to respect the dominant elements in the society. Similarly there will be no place for communal disorder;

. In times of peace and disorder, like the armed soldiers, no one in the army

Nonviolent work It shall be their duty to unite victorious communities in order to spread peace, and to include such activities as may involve any person with whom he maintains contact in his church or section. Such an army must be ready to fight any emergency and must also have enough soldiers to die to quell the wrath of the crowd; satyagraha (Satyabal) brigade can be organized in every block of buildings up to every village and city If a non-violent society is attacked then two paths of non-violence are opened. Do not co-operate with the aggressor to gain authority but prefer to embrace death rather than surrender. Another way would be to resist nonviolently by people who have been trained in nonviolent ways... On the endless trails of this unpredictable spectacle, men and women prefer to die simply rather than surrender to the will of the aggressor and eventually : He and his military bravery have to melt in front of them. A country or a group that has made non- violence as its ultimate policy, even an atomic bomb cannot make it its slave. When the level of non-violence passes happily in that country, it naturally rises to such an extent that it deserves universal respect.

seems to meet.

In line with these ideas, when Nazi Germany 's attacks on British islands in 1940 appeared imminent, Gandhi asked the British to follow the following policy of non-violence in peace and war.

I would prefer to ask you to lay down arms because they are useless in saving you or humanity. You have to invite Her Hitler and Signor Mussolini to call them your right to get what they want from the countries. But you have to choose to stay, then you have to vacate them. If they don't give you way easily then you will allow yourself, men to sacrifice women and children, but refuse to bow down to your allegiance.

In a post-war interview in 1946, he presented an even further idea.

The Jews should have given themselves the butcher's knife. They should have thrown themselves into the sea from the sea rocks.

Yet Gandhi knew that such a level of non-violence would require unwavering faith and courage and for this he realized that not everyone has it. So he advised everyone that they need not keep non-violence to themselves, especially when it is used to protect cowardice.

In his Satyagraha movement, Gandhi kept away people who were afraid to take up arms or felt their own inability to resist. He wrote that:

I agree that where there is a choice between cowardice and violence, I will give my opinion in favor of violence.

I kept repeating the warning at each meeting until they realized that they had come under the authority of a non-violent force under whose authority they were before and they had become accustomed to that experiment and believed. That he had nothing to do with non-violence and again took up arms. Excavation steward (Khudai Khidmatgar) about it should never be said that those who were once so brave that Badshah Khan (Badshah Khan in effect) have now become cowards. Valor is not found only in those who are good targets, but in those who defeat death and shoot their chests

It is also present in those who are always ready to eat.

Vegetarian Attitude

As a child, Gandhi got the experience of eating meat. It was because of his successor curiosity, which was also contributed by his encouraging friend Sheikh Mehtab. The idea of vegetarianism was deeply embedded in the Hindu and Jain practices of India, and most Hindus in their homeland Gujarat were vegetarians. So were Jains. Gandhi's family was no exception to this. Before coming to London for studies, Gandhiji had made a promise to his mother Putlibai and his uncle Becharji Swami that they would abstain from eating meat, drinking alcohol and abstinence. They fasted to keep their promises, and by doing so provided evidence of something that could not be achieved by eating, the basis for their lifelong philosophy. As Gandhi became an adult, he became a completely vegetarian.became. He has also written The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism and a number of articles on the subject, some of which have appeared in The Vegetarian publication of the London Vegetarian Society. Gandhi himself was inspired by many great figures during this period and became a friend of Dr. Josiah Oldfield, the chairman of the London Vegetarian Society.

Henry Stephens Salt After reading and admiring the works of Henry Stephens Salt, young Mohandas Gandhi met a vegetarian campaigner and corresponded with him. Gandhi spent a lot of time advocating a vegetarian diet while in London and thereafter. Gandhiji said that vegetarian diet not only fulfills the needs of the body but it also serves the economic purpose which comes from meat and yet meat is more expensive than grains, vegetables and fruits. Apart from this, many Indians who were struggling due to low income, who were seen as vegetarian at that time, it was not only due to spiritual tradition but also due to practicality. They avoided eating for a long time, and politically fasting as opposedHe refused to eat until his death. His autobiography notes that being a vegetarian is the beginning of a deep commitment to celibacy, without total control his success in celibacy is almost unsuccessful.

Fruit (from Gandhi began Frutarian), were but started to drink goat's milk on the advice of his doctor | they were ever do not eat dairy products because first he believed the milk man's natural diet and he hated cow blowing, and the most important reason was the oath he made to his heavenly mother.

Celibacy

When Gandhiji turned sixteen, his father's health was very bad. He was always present at the time of his father's illness because he was extremely devoted to his parents. However, one day his uncle came to give some time to Gandhiji, he reached the bedroom for rest, where his physical desires were awakened and he fell in love with his wife. Shortly after the servant's departure, the news came that Gandhi Gandhi's father has just passed away. Gandhiji experienced tremendous guilt and could never forgive himself for this. He mentioned this incident in double shame. This incident had a significant impact on Gandhi and he was 36 at the age of celibacy (celibate) and began to turn, though he had married.

This decision was strongly influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya. Spiritual and practical purity is largely separated from celibacy and asceticism. Gandhi saw celibacy as the primary basis for drawing closer to the Divine and recognizing oneself. in his autobiography he his childhood bride, Kasturba (Kasturba are Btaten the struggles of their libido and jealousy with), he felt it his personal obligation to them to be celibate they may instead learn to love lust Gandhi Brahmacharya meant "control of thoughts, words and deeds under the senses".

Simplicity

Gandhiji believed that if a person is engaged in social service, then he should move towards a simple life which he considered necessary for celibacy. Their simplicity (Simplicity) was forced to abandon the Western lifestyle and they were spread in South Africa it they put in a position of zero to "own" which unnecessary costs, adopt a simple lifestyle and washing his clothes own Is necessary. On one occasion, they also return a gift made on behalf of the birth father for his continuous service to the community.

Gandhi used to observe silence for one day a week. He believed that abstaining from speaking gives him inner peace. This influence on him is of the Hindu principle of silence, (Sanskrit : - silence) and peace (Sanskrit : - peace). In those days, he communicated with others by writing on paper. For three-and-a-half years from the age of 37, Gandhi refused to read newspapers, to which he replied that the stable state of the world today confused him more than his own inner turmoil.

John Ruskin (John Ruskin) of Unto This Last (Unto This Last), after reading, he decided to change his lifestyle and create a commune called Phoenix Settlement was called.

South Africa, from where he completed law and was associated with wealth and success. After returning from there, he gave up western style clothes. He accepted the clothes worn by India's poorest man, and also advocated the wearing of home made clothes (Khadi). Gandhi and his followers adopted the practice of weaving their own clothes with yarn and encouraged others to do the same. Although Indian workers were often lazy due to unemployment, they often bought their clothes from industrial manufacturers aimed at British interests. had to be completed. Gandhi was of the opinion that if Indians started making their own clothes, it would be an economic blow to the British settled in India. As a result, after the spinning wheel (Spinning Wheel) was included in the Indian national flag. She later decided to wear a dhoti for the rest of her life to reflect her simple life.

Believe

Gandhi was born in Hinduism, throughout his life most of the principles originated from Hindutva. Like the common Hindu, he considered all religions equally, and therefore he rejected all arguments and efforts for conversion. He was knowledgeable in theology and studied all the major religions in detail. He has said the following about Hinduism-

Hinduism, as I understand it, completely satisfies my soul, floods my life,... when doubts surround me, when despair rises before me, when there is a glimmer of light on the horizon. Not a single ray is visible, then I take refuge in the Bhagavad-gita and some verse of it comforts me, and I immediately smile in the midst of great sadness. Many external tragedies have happened in my life and if they have not left any direct or indelible impact on me then I attribute it to the teachings of 'Bhagavad Gita'.

Gandhi Smriti (The house where Gandhi spent his last 4 months has become a memorial today, New Delhi)

Gandhi has also interpreted the Bhagavad Gita in Gujarati. Mahadev Desai has translated the Gujarati manuscript into English with additional introduction and description. It was published in 1946 with the foreword written by Gandhi.

Gandhi believed that truth and love are at the root of every religion. They say that look at the 'Quran', 'Bible', 'Zend-Avesta', 'Talmud', or 'Gita' by any means, we all have one God, and He is the embodiment of truth and love. Even on pretense, malpractices etc., he took a questionable attitude towards the principles of all religions. He was a tireless social reformer. Some of his comments in the context of different religions are as follows:

But just as I could not accept Christianity, in the same way I could not decide about the completeness of Hinduism or its paramountcy at that time. The errors of Hinduism kept floating before my eyes. If untouchability is a part of Hinduism, which appeared to be a rotten and later added part. I could not even understand the existence of many sects and many caste distinctions. What is the meaning of the fact that only the Vedas are God-given. If the Vedas are God-given, then why aren't the Bible and the Quran?

Just as Christian friends were trying to impress me, Muslim friends were also trying to impress me. Abdullah Seth used to encourage me to study Islam. He used to talk about his merits.

The sooner we lose on moral grounds, the sooner we will end the religious war, there is no such thing that religion should be above morality. For example, a man who is untruthful, cruel or incontinent and claims that God is with him can never happen.

Muhammad's words are a treasure trove of knowledge, not only for Muslims but for the entire human race.

Later, when asked if you were a Hindu, he said:


"Yes I am. I am a Christian, a Muslim, a Buddhist and a Jew too."

Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore engaged in protracted arguments more than once in spite of having deep respect for each other. These debates reflect the philosophical differences between the two. Both of them were famous Indian thinkers of that time. January 15, 1934 the state in terms of coming great earthquake Gandhi had said in the first public meeting of Tinnvlli January 24, 1934 Even if you call me superstitious, but a man like me will believe that God has sent this terrible earthquake to punish us for our sins. The crisis created is destroying our soul. Therefore, we should learn from this calamity of Bihar that with our few remaining breaths, we should be free from this stigma of untouchability and make ourselves able to appear before our Creator with a clean heart. On 25 January also he exhorted the people to renounce untouchability as a great sin in the context of this incident and on 26 January at a reception organized by the traders in Madura he said thatI am increasingly convinced that this calamity has come upon us as a result of this great sin of untouchability. I request you not to laugh at my words and think that I am awakening your superstitious attitude. I'm not doing anything like that.... I may be called superstitious, but I can't live without telling you what I'm feeling deep down in my heart. If you believe in this, then you will be quick in taking decisions and will agree that the law of untouchability as we practice today is not in the Hindu scriptures. You will agree with my view that it is a terrible sin to treat any human being as an untouchable. Man's ego tells him that he is superior to other people.

Considering Gandhiji's idea to be unreasonable as he was able to promote superstition, Rabindranath Tagore wrote that the definite and only root cause of material calamities is the sum of certain material facts. Even if they are terrible, they do not have enough power to destroy the structure of the universe.

In response to this, Gandhiji explained his point of view in detail and wrote that I have a living belief in the interrelationship of the natural phenomena happening in the universe and human behavior and because of that belief I have come closer to God, I have got humility and I have become more and more ready to present myself before God. If I, because of my gross ignorance, use that belief to condemn my opponents, then surely such a belief will become a fallacious superstition.

Writing And Publishing

Instead of having an air debate on Gandhiji and drawing arbitrary conclusions, it is not only an age-old necessity but also a demand for understanding that the authenticity of the basis of Gandhiji's beliefs should be kept in mind. From the general to the specific - almost every word of Gandhiji's written speech, which is documented in all contexts, is available for study. Therefore, it is naturally necessary that in view of these, something should be taken to a proper point. Gandhiji had a tendency to write from the very beginning. In his entire life, he has written far more than the poet. Whether it is in the form of comments or letters. Apart from writing many books, he also brought out many magazines and wrote profusely in them. His important writing work can be seen under the following points:

Magazines

Gandhiji was a successful writer. For many decades, he had edited many papers, including Harijan, Indian Opinion, Young India etc. When he came back to India, he brought out a monthly magazine called ' Navjeevan '. Later Navjeevan was also published in Hindi. In addition, he wrote letters to individuals and newspapers almost daily.

Major Published Books

Fundamentally by Gandhi written four books are: Hind Swaraj, history of Satyagraha in South Africa, The Story of My Experiments with Truth (autobiography), and Gita substance Fund Commentary entire Gita w. Gandhiji usually wrote in Gujarati, but got his books translated or done in Hindi and in English also.

Hind Swaraj

Hind Swaraj (originally Hind Swarajya) was written in Gujarati by Gandhiji on his return from England on a ship named Kildonan Castle and published in Indian Opinion upon his arrival in South Africa. The first twelve chapters are in the 11 December 1909 issue and the rest in the 18 December 1909 issue. It was first published in book form in January 1910 and was banned in India by the Government of Bombay on 24 March 1910. Gandhiji responded to this action of the Bombay government by publishing its English translation. In Appendix-1 of this book, a list of 20 books is also given for further study of the subject propounded in the book, which also gives a glimpse of the extent of Gandhiji's then study.

History of Satyagraha in South Africa

He started writing 'History of South African Satyagraha' originally in Gujarati under the name 'South African Satyagrano Itihasa' on 26 November 1923, while he was in Yerwada Jail. By the time he was released on 5 February 1924, he had written the first 30 chapters. It was published in 'Navjeevan' from 13 April 1924 to 22 November 1925 in the form of historiography. Its two volumes were published in book form in 1924 and 1925 respectively. The first edition of the English translation by Valji Desai was published with requisite modifications by S. Ganesan Madras in 1928 and the second and third editions by Navjeevan Prakashan Mandir, Ahmedabad in 1950 and 1961.

The Experiments of Truth (autobiography)

The original Gujarati chapters of the autobiography were serially published in the issue of 'Navjeevan'. It began with the publication of 'Preface' in the issue of 29 November 1925 and ended with the last chapter titled 'Purnahuti' in the issue of 3 February 1929. Along with the publication of Gujarati chapters, his Hindi translation in Hindi Navjivan and his English translation in Young India were also given. Accordingly, the translation of 'Prasavana' was published in the issue of 'Hindi Navjeevan' on 3 December 1925. The first volume of the autobiography in Hindi translation was published for the first time in book form from Sasta Sahitya Mandal, Delhi in the year 1928. The Navjeevan Trust, the owner of Gandhi's works, published its Hindi translation on its behalf in the year 1957.

Geeta Mata

Gandhiji's heartfelt attachment to Shrimad Bhagavad Gita was almost lifelong. His contemplation and writing on the Gita also continued for a long time. The Gujarati translation of the entire Gita, including the preface, was completed by him in June 1929 and was published in the book 'Anasakti Yoga' on 12 March 1930 from Navajivan Prakashan Mandir, Ahmedabad. Its translation into Hindi, Bengali and Marathi was also done immediately. The English translation was then completed in January 1931 and was first published in the issue of Young India.

Since the translation of each verse of the Gita was not easily comprehensible to the general readers, Gandhiji wrote the expressions of each chapter of the Gita in an easily understandable form for the general readers. These expressions were also sent to Narayandas Gandhi in the form of letters every week in 1930 and 1932 in Yerwada Central Jail so that they could be read in the prayer meetings of the ashram. These were later published in book form under the name 'Gita-Bodh'. Apart from these, he gave many discourses on Gita in prayer meetings. Gandhiji's association with the Gita was such that in spite of his very busy life, he prepared a dictionary of each verse of the Gita in alphabetical order, in which along with the meaning of the verse, their places of use were also specified. The collective publication of all these materials has been done in the name of 'Gita Mata'.

Sampoorna Gandhi Vayamya

The decision of the Government of India to publish a booklet for the publication of the entire literature written and oral of Gandhiji has undoubtedly been a historic step in the publishing world. The purpose of this book was to collect everything that Gandhiji said and wrote from day to day and year to year.

Under this decision, with the help of many learned scholars, the entire Gandhian literature was published. It was published in three languages. It has been published in English for the first time in 100 volumes (under the name THE COLLECTED WORKS OF MAHATMA GANDHI) and in 98 volumes in revised form (pdf). This Publishing Mahakumbh has been completed in 97 volumes in Hindi and 70 volumes in Gujarati. The Sampoorna Gandhi Vamaya (Hindi) also includes two additional features. One is that alphabetical sequence has been given at the end of each section, which has made it very convenient for study and review due to various tasks; And secondly, at the end of each section, a date-wise biography of Gandhiji has been given, which makes it easy to get a brief overview of all the important events and things of Gandhiji's life at a glance.

Other

Apart from these, collection of selected excerpts from the entire literature of Gandhiji and small booklets focused on various subjects have also been published under different names. Two of these collections have been very famous and very useful and both of them were also published during Gandhiji's lifetime (in English, 1945 and 1947):

  1. Thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi - No. R. K. Prabhu and U. R. Rao (National Book Trust, New Delhi)
  2. India of my dreams - No. - RK Prabhu (Navjeevan Prakashan Mandir, Ahmedabad)

Gandhi by John Ruskin 's Unto This Last (Unto This Last) is also explained in Gujarati. The last essay can be called his program related to economics, he has also written extensively on vegetarianism, food and health, religion, social reform.

In 2000, the revised edition of Gandhi's Complete Work (CWMG) came under controversy as Gandhi's followers accused the government of incorporating changes for political purposes.

Books on Gandhi

Many biographers have done the work of describing Gandhi's life. Two of those functions are broad and examples in themselves:

  1. MAHATMA (In 8 Volumes) By: D. G. Tendulkar (First Edition : January 1954) [The Publications Division, govt. of India, New Delhi]
  2. MAHATMA GANDHI - (In 10 Volumes) { The Early Phase to Last Phase } - By Pyarelal & Sushila Nayar [Navajivan Publishing House, Ahmedabad]

The Hindi translation of the last phase of this second great book in four volumes is published under the name Mahatma Gandhi: Poornahuti.

Col. G. B. Singh of the US Army stated that he devoted 20 years to the original speech and writing of his factual research book Divinity Ke Mask Peche Peche Gandhi (Gandhi: Behind the Mask of Divinity).

Alleged Homosexual Affair

In the 2011 book Great Soul: Mahatma Gandhi and His Struggle with India, Pulitzer Prize winning author Joseph Lelyveld described the relationship between Mahatma Gandhi and his South African colleague Hermann Kellenbach as an exclusive love affair. This caused controversy in India at the time of publication of the book, and the Legislative Assembly of Gandhi's home state of Gujarat banned the sale of this book through a resolution. According to Lelyveld, the assessment of Gandhi being homosexual or bisexual based on his book is incorrect. He said, "This book does not say that Gandhi was gay or bisexual. It [the book] says that [Gandhi] was a celibate, and was deeply [heart] attached to Kallenbach. And this is not new information." (words).

Gandhi and Kallenbach

Documents related to Mahatma Gandhi and his South African friend Hermann Kallenbach have been bought for $1.28 million (about Rs 6.88 crore) and brought to India. Before being auctioned in 2012, the Indian government had bought them from Sotheby's auction house in a confidential agreement. Kallenbach was a gymnast, bodybuilder and architect in South Africa. He also sent some such letters to MK Gandhi, which some critics call 'love letters'. The relationship between these two people was quite controversial.

Followers And Influence

Important leaders and political activities were influenced by Gandhi. Among the leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King and James Lawson were drawn to Gandhi's writings, which developed their own principles of non-violence. Nelson Mandela, an anti- apartheid activist and former President of South Africa, was inspired by Gandhi. Others include Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Steve Biko and Aung San Suu Kyi (Aung San Suu Kyi 's).

Gandhi's life and teachings inspire many people who consider Gandhi their guru or who dedicate their lives in spreading Gandhi's ideas. Europe, Romain Rolland was the first person who 19 your book in 24 Mahatma Gandhi had discussed the law and Brazilian anarchist (Anarchist) and feminist give Maria Lacerda de Moura wrote about Gandhi in her work on pacifism. 1931 remarkable physical The scientist Albert Einstein corresponded with Gandhi and in his later letters called him "a role model for generations to come". Lanza del Vsto (Lanza Del Vasto) came to India in 1936 with the intention of staying with Mahatma Gandhi; And later he came back to Europe to spread Gandhi philosophy and in 1948 he founded the Community of the Ark. (Influenced by Gandhi's ashram) Madeleine Slade (Miraben) was the daughter of a British naval admiral who spent most of her adult life in India as a devotee of Gandhi.

Additionally, British composer John Lennon cited Gandhi when he was expressing his views on non-violence. In 2007 Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival (Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival), former US vice president and environmentalist Al Gore pointed out the impact of Gandhi on them.

Ancestral Property

Centennial statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the center area of downtown Piatermaritjburg (Pietermaritzburg), South Africa 's.

October 2 is Gandhi's birthday, Gandhi Jayanti India on the occasion of a national holiday falls on June 15th 2007 it went to the declaration that " the United Nations General Assembly that" a resolution declaring that October 2 (2 October) the " International Non-Violence Day " will be celebrated as.

Often west Mahatma according to their meaning of the word is taken in the wrong as this culture which has taken Maha means great and self- meaning soul is. According to most sources, such as Datta and Robinson's Rabindranath Tagore: Anthology, it is said that Rabindranath Tagore was the first to give the title of Mahatma to Gandhi. According to other sources, Nautamalal Bhagwanji Mehta bestowed this title on him on 21 January 1915. However, Gandhi has said in his autobiography that he never felt that he was worthy of this honour. Citation, according to Gandhi's admirable sacrifice of his Justice and Truth Mahatma got its name.

In 1930, Time magazine named Mahatma Gandhi the man of the year. In 1999, Gandhiwas ranked second behind Albert Einstein, whowas named the man of the century. Time magazine called the Dalai Lama, Lech Walesa, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Cesar Chavez, Aung San Suu Kyi, Benigno Aquino Jr., Desmond Tutu and Nelson Mandela as spiritual successors to Gandhi's non-violence. The Government of India annually honors notable social workers, world leaders and citizens.Awarded with the Mahatma Gandhi Peace Prize. South African Nelson Mandela, who fought for the eradication of caste differences and segregation, was the first non-Indian to receive this award.

In 1996, the Government of India introduced the printing of Mahatma Gandhi's series of notes in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. All the notes in use today have Mahatma Gandhi's portrait on them. In 1969 the United Kingdom issued a series of postage stamps to commemorate the centenary birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

The Saadat Column on Gandhi Smriti in New Delhi marks the place where he was assassinated.

In the United Kingdom, there are many such statues of Gandhiji in those special places such as Tavistok Square near London University College, London where he studied law. National Gandhi Memorial Day is celebrated on 30 January in the United Kingdom. In the United States, statues of Gandhi are located outside Union Square in New York City and the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site in Atlanta and Massachusetts Street near the Indian Embassy in Washington DC. Pietermaritzburg, Near Indian Embassy a statue has been erected in his memory in South Africa, where Gandhi was expelled from the first rank in 1893. Gandhi's statues are located at Madame Tussaud 's wax museum in London, New York and many other cities around the world.

Gandhi never received the Nobel Peace Prize, although he was nominated five times between 1937 and 1948, including a nomination by the American Friends Service Committee. Decades later, the Nobel Committee publicly declared that it regretted its mistake and acknowledged that divided national views were the reason for not awarding the prize. This award was to be given to Mahatma Gandhi in 1948, but it had to be stopped due to his assassination. The war broke out in two new nations India and Pakistan that year. The award was not given in the year 1948 after Gandhi's death because there was no living qualified candidate and when the Dalai Lama in 1989When the committee was awarded, the chairman of the committee said that "it is only part of the tribute in the memory of Mahatma Gandhi."

Raj Ghat, in New Delhi, India, marks the site where Gandhi was cremated in 1948

Birla Bhawan (or Birla House), New Delhi where Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948, was acquired by the Government of India in 1971 and opened to the public in 1973 as Gandhi Smriti. It preserves the room where Gandhi spent his last four months and also the ground where he was assassinated while going for a night walk. A martyr's pillar now marks the spot where he was assassinated.

Every year on January 30, the death anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the School Day of Non-Violence and Peace (DENIP) is celebrated in schools in many countries, which was founded in Spain in 1964. In countries that use the Southern Hemisphere calendar, on March 30. It is celebrated.

Ideals and Criticisms

The concept of division

Gandhi as a rule was against the concept of partition as it was against his vision of religious unity. In Harijan on 6 October 1946, he wrote about the partition of India to form Pakistan :

(Demand of Pakistan) As presented by the Muslim League is un-Islamic and I will not hesitate to call it sinful Islam stands for the brotherhood and unity of mankind, and not for obstructing the unity of the human family. Those who want India to turn into two warring groups are enemies of both India and Islam. They can cut me into pieces but can't persuade me to do what I think is wrong[...] should be postponed.

Nevertheless, Jack Homer notes, noting Gandhi's long correspondence with Jinnah on the subject of Pakistan—"Although Gandhi was personally against Partition, he suggested a consensus under which the Congress and the Muslim League would form a provisional government. Get your freedom by compromising below, after which the question of partition will be decided by the referendum of the districts which have a large Muslim population."

Taking this double position on the subject of the partition of India, Gandhi opened up the dimensions of criticism from both the Hindus and the Muslims. Muhammad Ali Jinnah and contemporary Pakistanis condemned Gandhi for undermining Muslim political authority. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his associates denounced Gandhi and alleged that he was politically engaged in persuading Muslims and was careless about the atrocities being committed on Hindus and gave his approval for the creation of Pakistan (although the public Apparently he had declared that my body would be cut into two halves before partition). It is still politically controversial today, such as Ayesha Jalal, a Pakistani-American historian.It argues that Gandhi and the Congress were unwilling to share power with the Muslim League as the reason for the Partition; Hindu nationalist politician Pravin Togadia, for example, also criticizes Gandhi's leadership on the subject, pointing out that his share Due to the extreme weakness of India, the partition of India took place.

Gandhi 1930 end-end division to build on Israel was also to Palestine partition expressed his distaste. He said in Harijan on 26 October 1938 :

I do receive many letters have been asked me if I declare that the Jews in Germany 'll keep what about the persecution and Arab nations (Persecution Of The Jews In Germany). It is not that I will be able to give my views on this difficult question without hesitation. My sympathies are with the Jews. I know him closely from South Africa, some have become my companions for life. It was through these friends that I got to know about the harassment I was facing for a long time. They have been untouchables of Christianity, but my sympathy does not dissuade me from the need for justice. The cry of one nation for the Jews does not attract me much. Which was approved in the Bible and the insistence with which they have started wanting Palestine in their return. Why not they, loving other peoples of the earth, make the country their home where they were born and where they earned their living. Palestine belongs to the Arabs, just as the Inland belongs to the British and France to the French.

Rejection Of Violent Resistance

Gandhi also came under a bit of political fire because of his criticism of those who wanted to achieve freedom through violence. His refusal against the hanging of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, Udam Singh, Rajguru became the reason for his condemnation in some parties.

To this criticism, Gandhi said, "There was a time when people used to tell me how the British could be fought without arms because then there were no weapons... But today I am told that my non-violence is of no use. No, because this cannot stop the riots of Hindu-Muslims, so one should be armed for self-defense."

He argued in several articles, including Homer Jacques's The Gandhi Reader: A Source of His Writings and Life. 1 to 9. In the first 38 "Judaism and went wrote Anti-Semitism", Gandhi 19 of 30 Jews in Germany harassment (Persecution Of The Jews In Germany) to Satyagraha said under his non-violence to the difficulties endured by Jews in Germany offered to use the method saying

If I were a Jew and born in Germany and made my living from there, I would consider Germany my home, even if a civilized German would threaten to shoot me or throw me in a dungeon, I would be in a tizzy and partisan behavior. I will refuse to be subject to. And for this I will not wait for the Jewish brothers to come and join me in my legal antagonism, but I will be confident that in the end everyone will be forced to follow my example. If the recipe given here is accepted by a single Jew or all the Jews, then their condition will not be worse than what it is today. And if they voluntarily endure the suffering inflicted, it will give them inner strength and joy, and Hitler's deliberate violence may also result in a simple genocide of the Jews and this will be the first response against his declaration of atrocities. If the minds of the Jews are willing to suffer voluntarily, I imagine that the day of massacre will also turn into a day of thanksgiving and rejoicing, as Jihova coined... by giving his nation into the hands of a tyrant. Those who fear God are not afraid of the terror of death.

Gandhi was criticized for these statements, which he answered in the article "Questions on the Jews", along with his friends sent two newspaper articles criticizing my appeal to the Jews. It is not new at all.... My only submission is that if one renounces violence from the heart, then ultimately he will create a power through practice, which is due to great sacrifice. He responded to the criticisms in "Answers to Jewish Friends" and "Jews and Palestine" by stating that "I asked from the heart to renounce violence that would ultimately create a power through practice." Which is because of great sacrifice.

Gandhi's statement about the imminent sacrifice of Jews attracted criticism from many commentators. Martin Buber (Martin Buber) Gandhi had himself an opponent of the Jewish state, February 24, 1939 wrote a sharply critical open letter. Buber asserted that the treatment of the Indian people by the British was different from the treatment of the Jews by the Nazis, and Gandhi supported the use of force on some occasions when Indians were victims of persecution.

Gandhi 1930 German Jews (Persecution Of The Jews In Germany) the harassment of Satyagraha said referral within. In November 1938, he suggested a method of non-violence to the Nazi persecution of the Jews who had been exposed:

It appears that the German persecution of Jews has no parallel in history. The dictators of the past have never been as mad as Hitler, and they do so with religious fervor that they present an exclusive religion and a warlike nation in whose name any inhumanity becomes the law of humanity, which is now And will be rewarded in future. It is obvious that a crime committed by a mad but fearless youth will hit the whole race with incredible ferocity. If ever there is a just war in the name of humanity, then a full war against Germany's brazen oppression of Puri Com can be said to be appropriate. But I do not believe in any war. It is not within my jurisdiction to discuss the pros and cons of war. But if a war cannot be waged against such crimes committed by Germany on Jews, then there cannot be an alliance with Germany, how can there be an alliance between such countries, one of which claims justice and democracy? And the other who has been declared the enemy of both?"

Early articles of South Africa

Gandhi's early writings about South Africa are controversial. On March 7, 1908, Gandhi wrote in the Indian Opinion about his prison life in South Africa "Kaffirs are uncivilized under rule - even more so as prisoners. They are painful.", dirty and live almost like animals." On the subject of immigration in 1903, Gandhi remarked that "I believe that as much as he believes in the purity of his race, so do we...we believe that the white race in South Africa is the superior race should be." during his time in South Africa, Gandhi protested about the social classification of blacks with repeatedly Indians, whom they described as" undoubtedly infinitely superior to the Kaffirs ". It is worth noting that in Gandhi's time infidels of current (A Different Connotation one) are used to sense a different meaning (Its Present-Day Usage) K These statements of Gandhi have given him an opportunity to level the allegation of being a racist by some.

Surendra Bhana and Ghulam Wahed, two professors of history who specialize in the history of South Africa, have examined this controversy in their original text The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. (New Delhi: Manohar, 2005). At the heart of Chapter One, "Gandhi, the colonial-born African and Indian" on the relationship between African and Indian communities in "white hegemony" and the policies that led to the Partition (and he argues that conflicts abound between these communities) Regarding this relationship, he says, "Young Gandhi was influenced in the 1890s by the divisive ideas that prevailed at that time." At the same time, he says, "Gandhi's prison experience made him more sensitive to the condition of those people...Gandhi was further determined; he was less concerned with prejudice in his expression towards Africans." Became decisive and began to look at the points of common cause on a larger scale. His negative outlook in Johannesburg Prison consisted of brash African prisoners and not ordinary Africans."

Former South African President Nelson Mandela is a follower of Gandhi, in Johannesburg when Gandhi's critics tried to prevent the unveiling of the statue in 2003. Bhana and Wahed comment on the events surrounding the unveiling in The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1913–1914. In the section "Gandhi's Legacy for South Africa" ​​he writes "Gandhi inspired generations of activists in South Africa to end white hegemony. This legacy links him to Nelson Mandela. Mandela ended the cycle which Gandhi started." He continues, citing the controversies that arose during the unveiling of Gandhi's statue. In response to these two approaches to Gandhi, Bhana and Wahed argue: they want people to justify Gandhi for their political purpose in post-apartheid South Africa, ignoring many facts about him. The cause doesn't help much; And those who simply call him a racist are equally guilty of misrepresentation/perversion."

Anti-State

Gandhi Raj Anti (Anti Statist) was that his vision is not subject to any government that's India. His idea was that true in a country self-government (Self Rule does means) that govern every person himself and no state which enforces laws upon the people. At times he is a self- called philosophical anarchist (Philosophical Anarchist) K In his sense the existence of an independent India is the existence of thousands of small self-sufficient communities (probably Tolstoy's).The idea of) those who rule themselves without becoming a hindrance to others. This did not mean the transfer of the administrative set-up set up by the British to the Indians, for which they said that India was to be converted into England. In the absence of faith in the parliamentary system the British way they dissolve the Congress Party after independence in India direct democracy (Direct Democracy) in the system wanted to establish.

Criticism of Gandhiji

He is also often criticized for the principles and actions of Gandhi. The main points of his criticism are-

  • Supporting the British in the Zulu Rebellion
  • Supporting the British in both world wars,
  • Making communal movements like Khilafat movement a national movement,
  • Condemning the violent actions of armed revolutionaries against the British,
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact - which caused a great setback to the Indian revolutionary movement,
  • Unhappy with the election of Subhas Chandra Bose as the President of the Indian National Congress,
  • Stopping the non-cooperation movement after the Chauri Chaura incident,
  • Making Nehru the prime ministerial candidate after India's independence,
  • Fasting on the insistence of giving 55 crore rupees to Pakistan after independence,
  • Bhimrao Ambedkar considered Mahatma Gandhi to be a supporter of the caste system.

एक टिप्पणी भेजें