What is Devanagari Script | History Of Devanagari Script

Origin of Devanagari Script

Brahmi, the ancient script of India, was used from the 5th century BC to about 350 AD. After this two styles developed -
  1. Northern style
  2. Southern style.
What is Devanagari Script | History Of Devanagari Script
The Gupta script developed in the 4th century from the northern style, which continued to be used till the 8th century. It was from this script that the ancient form of Nagari developed around the 9th century, which is called ancient Nagari. The area of ​​ancient Nagari is considered to be North India, but it is also found in some parts of Southern India. In southern India, its name is not 'Nagri' but Nandinagri. Modern, Nagri, Gujarati, Mahanji, Rajasthani, Kaithi, Maithili, Assamese, Bangla scripts have evolved from the ancient city itself. Later on, Assamese, Bangla, Maninuri, etc. scripts of the East Zone are considered to be developed. Modern Nagari evolved from ancient Nagari in the 15-16th century.
There is a difference of opinion about the name "Nagri" - how this name came. There are some opinions -
  • The city of Gujarat was called "Nagri" because it was used exclusively by the Brahmins.
  • Due to its prevalence mainly in the cities, it got the name "Nagri".
  • According to some people, the "Nag script" mentioned in Lalit Vistar is Nagari, that is, the word 'Nagar' is related to 'Nag'.
  • It was called 'Devanagari' because of its promotion in 'Devanagar' meaning 'Kashi'.
  • According to another theory, a style of establishment in the Middle Ages was 'Nagar' - which had quadrilateral shapes. There were two other 'styles', 'Dravida' (octagonal or octagonal) and Besar (circular). Due to the quadrilateral letters (प,म,भ,ग) in the Nagari script, it was called Nagari. None of the above views are very convincing. Therefore, the question of the etymology of the name 'Nagri' is still undecided. This means Nagari is often called Devanagari Nagar, Devanagara, Loknagar script.
Other names of Devanagari are - Devanagari is also often called Nagari, Nagar Devanagara, Lokanagari script. A special style of its unwritten Nagari is also named Nandinagri. Among the various names given above, Nagari is the most popularly known.
The earliest form of Nagari originated from the Gupta (devious) script between the eighth-ninth centuries. It originated in northern India, but its earliest writings have been found in the southern provinces of India. It is clear from this that Devanagari spread from north to south with birth. This is a vivid proof of its popularity. No Devanagari writings are found in northern India before the tenth century, but in southern India, inscriptions from the eighth century are also available. For example, the earliest writings of Devanagari were first in the donations of King Govind Raj II of Rashtrakuta in Dhulia 780 AD, then some from Paithan and Vanigaon in the donation letters of Raj Govind III of Rashtrakuta in 794 AD in 808 AD and subsequently of Rashtrakuta. Available in the donations of King Dhruvaraj, Amodhavarsha and his Shilaravanshi feudal lord Pulshakti of 835 AD, 843 AD and 851 AD respectively. According to Aujha ji, "Thus the Nagari script is found to have been written extensively from the second half of the eighth century, but it should have been used even before that, because in the donation letter of 703 AD of the Gurjarvanshi king Jayabhat III of Gujarat, which is the western style of the southern style. It is in the script, the signature of the said king 'Swahasto Mam Srijyabhatsya is in the Nagari script only'. Similarly, the use of this script is also found in the donation letters of the Yadavas of Devagiri and the kings of Vijayanagara. The Nagari script of the South is known as 'Nandinagri' and is still widely used in the writing of Sanskrit books in the South.
The oldest form of Old Nagari in North India is found in the donation letter of 898 AD of Dighwa Dabouli of Pratihara dynasty king Mahendrapala I of Kannauj. His samples are available in many later inscriptions and donations. Giving the introduction of ancient Devanagari, Aujha ji has written that "In the Nagari script of northern Bharatvarsha of the tenth century, the heads of अ, आ, ध, प, म, य, ष and स are found divided into two parts, like the crooked script. But from the eleventh century, these two parts together form a line of the head and the head of each letter is as long as the width of the letter. The Nagari script from the eleventh century resembles the present Nagari and from the twelfth century the present Nagari The oldness is seen only in E and D. From the twelfth century till now, the Nagari script has continued in many forms, yet there remains some difference between the writing style and the distinction of the country.
Between the tenth century and the twelfth century, most of the modern scripts of North India were born from this ancient city, one of which is the present Devanagari or Nagari script, which is the national script of India in the present era due to its wide publicity and its distinctive scientific features.

Modern form of Devanagari

The modern city is a developed form of the ancient city of the tenth century. It attained its present form in the twelfth century. Just as Prakrit and Apabhramsa have two main stages between the development of Sanskrit to Hindi, similarly there are two main steps between the development of Brahmi to Nagari, the Gupta script and the devious script. The Indo-Aryan language and the Indo-Aryan script seem to have developed simultaneously.
The present form of the city is a product of gradual development based on centuries of use. With its birth, it has become a carrier of rich languages ​​like Sanskrit, Prakrit and Apabhramsa, besides modern Marathi and Hindi. It is the incomplete research of Indian wisdom and the main patron of the entire Indian thought-tradition. Its wide spread from South India to North India from the eighth-ninth century to the present day is a direct proof of its unparalleled popularity. In 1070 AD, Mahmud Ghaznabi from Mahmudpur (Lahore) had issued such a silver coin, on one back of which "Avyaktmenk Muhammad Avatar Nripati Mahmud" was printed in Nagari script and "Ayam Tankam Mahmudpur Ghatile Hijrien Samvat 418" on the other side. It is clear that Mahmud Ghaznabi must have placed it on his coin only after seeing its popularity.

Features of Devanagari

Although each person of his own child has his own language and script most beautiful and lovely, but a neutral, unbiased and liberal-minded person rises above this natural but avoidable attachment and describes the real truth. Most of such scholars of the world believe that the citizens are more scientific than the entire existing scripts of the world.
The qualities which have given the citizen the ability and the distinction of being a complete and balanced script of the world, are summarized as follows -
  • It is full of more and more sound-signs (varnas) that come in the language.
  • The classification of vowels and consonants in its alphabet has been done according to the scientific method on the basis of pronunciation-place and experiments.
  • There are separate independent letters for each sound in which there is some degree of mutual confusion.
  • Its present form is based on the use of ages, due to which it has the strength of a long tradition.
  • After learning its alphabet and spelling, there is no need to memorize the spelling of words, knowing the correct pronunciation of Siddha words, they can be written correctly.
  • Being the successor of Brahmi, it has little resemblance to all modern Indian scripts.
  • What is written in it is read and what is spoken is written.
  • In this, there is a separate independent symbol for each vowel letter, through which vowel consonants i.e. letters can be written in independent letters according to the pronunciation.
  • Due to the above mentioned eighth quality, more words can be written in less space in it.
  • In this script, it is necessary to pronounce every letter of the written words.
  • This writing reading is simple and easy from both point of view.
  • Its form is eye-catching.
  • It is quick-writing friendly.
  • The oldest splendid music of the nation is written in this.
  • It is based on scripture due to its connection with Vedvani.
  • It is easy to learn because of its scientific method.
  • Any language of the world can be successfully written by it if necessary changes are made.
  • It is not only the inland script of India, but it is also capable of being made an international script due to the above mentioned seventeenth quality.
  • There is no monopoly of any particular language on it. It is the script of languages ​​like Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhramsa, Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, etc. and can be script of any other language.
  • It is an alphabetic script and is the last line of the latest development of the script.
  • Each letter is pronounced.
  • It not only has separate independent letters (ङ, ड, ञ, ण, न, म) for different local nasal sounds, which is not in any other script of such a number, as well as for different degrees of nasalization of vowels. Therefore, the presence of Ayogavahas such as Anuswara Vadha Chandrabindu proves its sound scientific completeness.
  • It has a unique ability of composite color composition, which is a vivid proof of its scientific balance and completeness.
  • It is well suited for phonetic and phonetic transcription and transliteration.
  • To read the words written in this script, there is no need to take help from guessing or speculation.
  • Its characters do not violate the different forms of capital and small letters as in the Roman alphabet. For this reason, in writing, printing, and typing, the characters remain the same everywhere (in the beginning-middle-end).

History of Devanagari Script

The function of script is to mark expressions. The more successful the script is in this work, it will be said to be more powerful and useful. The rope script and the sentimental script have their own limitations. Therefore, they cannot be called useful in comparison to the Dhvani-oriented script. Alphabetical script also in phonetic script, a? It is periodic, scientific and useful in comparison to the alphabetic script, because through it the notation of sounds can be done in a more clear and scientific way. The scripts of this category are only Roman and few others derived from it.

Brief Introduction to Devanagari Script

The Devanagari script has evolved from the western form of the old Nagari script. The proper development of the Nagari script is believed to date from the 10th century. The study of ancient handwriting shows that the script used in the inscriptions of Bhimdev I (1028 AD) and Bhimdev II (1200 AD) and Udayavarman (1200 AD) is closer to the present Hindi. In this way, the beginning of the present Devanagari script, from 1000 AD to 1200 AD, the Nagari script was almost developed at the same level as the present Nagari. The difference is found only in certain quantities.
There is controversy over its nomenclature:
  • There is controversy over its nomenclature.
  • It was named "Nagri" because of the maximum use by the Nagar Brahmins of Gujarat.
  • Some scholars establish its relation with the 'Nag' script mentioned in the Buddhist text 'Lalit Vistar'. But Dr. Barnett is of the opinion that both Nag script and Nagari script are completely different scripts.
  • Returns. According to M. Shastri, before the construction of the idols of the gods, they were worshiped here by symbolic symbols, which were inscribed in the middle of many types of trigonal instruments. These instruments were called 'Devanagar' and those symbols were called 'Devanagar'. Due to its development (Devnagar) from those signs, it got its name.
  • It was called 'Devanagari' because of its promotion in 'Devnagar' meaning 'Kashi'.
  • There is also a view that Pataliputra was earlier called 'Nagar' and Chandragupta II was called 'Deva'. This script has been named 'Devanagari' after him.
  • According to Dr. Dhirendra Verma - The name of a style of architecture of the medieval age was 'Nagar' which had square shapes. Here most of the letters of the Nagari script are also square. On this basis, it has been called 'Devanagari' script to give respect or respect.

Development of Devanagari

According to Dr. Dwarka Prasad Saxena, the first use of Devanagari script is found in an inscription of King Jayabhatta of Gujarat (700-800 AD). This script was also prevalent among the Rashtrakuta kings of the eighth century and in the ninth century Dhruvaraj of Baroda also used this script in his mandates. This Devanagari script was also propagated in Vijayanagara kingdom and Konkan. On this basis some scholars accept that Devanagari was first developed in the south and from there this script became prevalent in the north.
Dr. Saxena also believes that this script has been prevalent in most areas of India. Inscriptions available in the provinces of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Gujarat etc. ancient handwriting, copper leaf, only Devanagari script is found in ancient texts. Even today, this script is used in most of the provinces of India except the entire Hindi region and this script is used in all the dialects of Hindi, Sanskrit, Marathi, Nepali and Hindi.
From the 8th century AD to the eighteenth century, the Devanagari script was prevalent in sufficient quantity among the Guhilvanshi kings of Mewar, the Parihar kings of Marwar, the Haihaya dynasty kings of Madhya Pradesh, the Rathor and Kalchuri kings, the Gahadwals of Kannauj and the Solanki kings of Gujarat. In the beginning, the letters of this script did not have crests and the heads of अ, घ, म, य, व were divided into two parts. Gradually, efforts have been made to make them beautiful. And by coming in the fourteenth century, this form of this script characters became stable, which is found today.
The story of the development of the Nagari script is very long, of which the special importance is the expressions that lie on it.
  • As a result of the influence of Persian, the use of Nukta or Bindu started, which is written in the form of tongue-sounding sounds - क, ग, ज etc.
  • Due to the influence of Marathi, the earlier 'प्र' is now replaced with 'अ'. Similarly, in place of 'झ' and 'क' characters are ahead from the use of Marathi.
  • Some people write Nagari script without shirrekha, this can be considered a Gujarati influence.

The science of Devanagari script

The language of any script has importance from the classical point of view only if it has the qualities of an ideal scientific script. But it is also true that there is no script in the world which contains all the features of ideal policy from a scientific point of view. Nevertheless, by discussing the merits and demerits, we can evaluate the scientificity of any script.
Devanagari script is more ancient and popular script, further discussion will make it clear that how much Devanagari script is scientifically true.

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